GLOSSARY OF THE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES

"GLOSSARY
OF THE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
AND EFFECTS OF HERBS"

Courtesy of John Dunne-Brady C.H.

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Abortient: Same as Abortifacient

Abortifacient: An herb or substance that induces or causes an abortion, miscarriage, or premature expulsion of a fetus. (Abortient, Abortive)

Abortive: Same as Abortifacient

Absorbent: An herb or substance that promotes absorption, soaks up liquid, or acts as a sponge. (Ab- sorbefacient)

Absorbefacient: Same as Absorbent

Abstergent: An herb or substance that acts as a cleanser or purifier. (Syn: Anti-septic, Blood Purifier, Depurant, Depurative, Detergent, Disinfectant, Saponaceous)

Acidic: An herb or substance that reacts with an alka- loid to produce a salt.

Acidifier: An herb or substance that increases or imparts acidity, or lessens alkalinity, to the body fluids, especially the blood or the urine. (Ant: Alkalinizer, Antacid)

Acrid: An herb or substance that has a hot biting taste, or causes heat and irritation when applied to the skin. (Syn: Caustic Cauterant, Corrosive, Escharotic)

Adaptogen: Same as Adaptogenic

Adaptogenic: An herb or substance that helps the body to maintain health by adapting to environmental and internal stress, usually by strengthening the immune system, nervous system, and/or glandular system. A general tonic for all systems.

Adjuvant: An herb or substance that is added to a formula or mixture of other herbs to aid in the dis- tribution of the medicine to the proper loca- tion in the body or to enhance the effect of the other principle ingredients. (Syn: Carrier)

Adulterant: An impure ingredient or a substitute product introduced into a preparation

Alexipharmic: An herb or substance that acts as an antidote or remedy for poisoning

Alexiteric: An herb or substance that acts as an antidote, remedy, or protection against infectious diseases.

Alkalinizer: An herb or substance that increases or imparts alkalinity, or lessens acidity, to the body fluids, especially the blood or the urine. (Ant: Acidifier, Syn: Antacid)

Alkaloidal: An herb or substance that is usually derived from plants, and is typically nitrogen bear- ing, intensely bitter, and potentially toxic. It reacts with an acid to produce a salt. (e.g. caffeine, morphine, berberine) (Ant: Acidic)

Alterative: An herb or substance that corrects body func- tions either gradually or quickly by stimula- ting the defensive mechanisms of the metabol- ism, blood, or tissue in the presence of chronic or acute disease. (The time required may be six months or longer if chronic or a few minutes if acute). An herb which produces gradual and beneficial changes in the body, usually by improving metabolism, nutrition, circulation, or elimination, but without causing any drastic effects.

Amphoteric: An herb or substance which works on human physiology in such a way that it promotes "balance" or homeostasis.. (normalcy) within the body. It is special because its effects achieve balance either from a "deficiency" condition or one of "excess". Analgesic: An herb or substance that relieves or reduces pain without causing unconsciousness (Syn: Anodyne, Anesthetic, Narcotic, Sedative)

Anaphrodisiac: An herb or substance that reduces or represses sexual desire or potency. (Ant: Aphrodisiac)

Anesthetic: An herb or substance that temporarily reduces, deadens, or abolishes physical sensations. Thus it tends eliminate pain and the sense of touch. The effect may be local or general. (Syn: Analgesic, Anodyne, Narcotic, Sedative)

Anhydrotic: An herb or substance that reduces, suppresses, or prevents excessive perspiration and sweating. (Anti-hydrotic)

Anodyne: An herb or substance that soothes, relieves, or reduces pain without causing unconsciousness. (Syn: Analgesic, Anesthetic, Narcotic, Sedative)

Anoretic: An herb or substance that causes a decrease in appetite.

Antacid: An herb or substance that corrects acidity by neutralization, usually in the stomach. (Ant: Acidifier, Syn: Alkalinizer)

Antagonist: An herb or substance that opposes the action of some other agent or medicine, especially the toxic effects of alkaline poisons.

Anthelmintic: An herb or substance that destroys and/or expels intestinal worms. (Syn: Vermicide, Vermifuge, Taeniacide, Taeniafuge)

Anthilitic: An herb or substance that reduces or suppresses urinary calculi (stones) and acts to dissolve those which are already present. (Anti-lithic, Syn: Deobstruent, Lithontriptic)

Anti-alopecic: An herb or substance that reduces or retards baldness, or which stimulates hair growth. (Ant: Depilitory)

Anti-arthritic: An herb or substance that reduces arthritic pain and inflammation in the joints. (Syn: Antirheumatic) Anti-bacterial: An herb or substance that destroys bacteria, germs, or other micro-organisms. (Syn: Fungi- cide, Anti-bacterial, Germicide, Disinfectant)

Anti-bilious: An herb or substance that acts on the gall bladder and the bile to relieve biliousness. (Ant: Cholagogue)

Anti-biotic: An herb or substance that destroys or arrests the growth of micro-organisms. (Syn: Antiseptic, Disinfectant, Detergen )

Anti-cardialgic: An herb or substance that relieves heartburn.

Anti-cephalgic: An herb or substance that relieves headaches.

Anti-coagulant: An herb or substance that prevents or alleviates clotting or coagulation in a liquid, especially the blood. (Ant: Coagulant, Hemostatic, Styptic)

Anti-diabetic: An herb or substance that helps counteract the effects of diabetes by stabilizing blood sugar levels directly or by stimulating or mimicing the production of insulin.

Anti-diarrhoeic: An herb or substance that counteract diarrhoea.

Antidote: An herb or substance that counteracts a poison by, [a] chemically destroying the poison, [b] mechanically preventing absorption, or [c] physiologically opposing the effects of the poison in the body after absorption.

Anti-dysenteric: An herb or substance that counteract dysentery.

Anti-emetic: An herb or substance that prevents, counteracts or stops nausea and vomiting (emesis). (Ant: Emetic)

Anti-epileptic: An herb or substance that prevents, counteracts or relieves epileptic fits.

Anti-febrile: An herb or substance that reduces or prevents fevers. (Syn: Anti-pyretic, Febrifuge)

Anti-fertilitic: An herb or substance that inhibits the forma- tion of ova or sperm, or interfers with the process of fertilization. Syn: Contraceptive

Anti-flatulent: An herb or substance that relieves gas and/or digestive stress.

Anti-galactagogue: An herb or substance that decreases the secre- tion of milk. (Ant: Galactagogue)

Anti-hemorrhagic: An herb or substance that arrests or controls profuse bleeding (hemorrhage). (Syn: Coagu- lant, Hemostatic, Styptic)

Anti-hemorrhoidic: An herb or substance that soothes, reduces, or relieves hemorrhoids and hemorrhoid bleeding.

Anti-herpetic: An herb or substance that works against or counteracts or the herpes virus.

Anti-hydrotic: An herb which reduces, suppresses, or prevents excessive perspiration and sweating. (Anhy- drotic)

Anti-inflammatory: An herb or substance that reduces or counter- acts feverish inflamations and infections. (Syn: Anti-phlogistic)

Anti-lithic: An herb or substance that reduces or suppresses urinary calculi (stones) and acts to disolve those which are already present. (Anthili- tic, Syn: Deobstruent, Lithontriptic)

Anti-malarial: An herb or substance that acts as a remedy for malaria. (Syn: Anti-periodic)

Anti-microbic: An herb or substance that prevents or stops the growth of microbes (bacteria).

Anti-periodic: An herb or substance that diminishes or arrests the morbid periodic fluctuations of certain diseases, especially malaria. (Syn: Anti- malarial)

Anti-phagocytic: An herb or substances that opposes or counter- acts the action of phagocytes (blood cells that attack foreign matter).

feverish inflamations and infections: (Syn: Anti-inflammatory)

Anti-pyretic: An herb or substance that reduces or prevents the high temperatures of fevers. (Syn: Febri- fuge, Refrigerant)

Anti-rheumatic: An herb or substance that reduces rheumatic pain, inflammation, and infection in the joints. (Syn: Anti-arthritic)

Anti-scorbutic: An herb or substance that is a source of vita- min C, and is used to prevent or cure scurvy.

Anti-scrofulous: An herb or substance that is used to counteract scrofula (tuberculosis of the lymph glands, which causes swelling, inflammation, and de- generation).

An herb or substance that destroys or inhibits pathogenic or putrefactive bacteria. (Syn: Anti-biotic, Detergent, Disinfectant)

Anti-sialagogue: An herb or substance that prevents or diminish- es the flow of saliva. (Anti-sialic, Ant: Sialagogue)

Anti-sialic: Same as Anti-sialagogue

Anti-spasmodic: An herb or substance that relieves, stops, or prevents spasms, cramps, and contractions in either the voluntary or involuntary muscles, and which also alleviates the pain which can accompany them. (Syn: Spasmolytic)

Anti-sudorific: An herb or substance that prevents or excessive perspiration and sweating.

Anti-syphilitic: An herb or substance that effective against or cures venereal disease, especially syphilis.

Anti-tetanic: An herb or substance that is effective against or prevents tetanus.

Anti-thermic: An herb or substance that reduces body tempera- ture. (Syn: Refrigerant, Febrifuge)

Anti-toxic: An herb or substance that counteracts or neu- tralizes poisons or toxins.

Anti-tussive: An herb or substance that relieves or prevents coughing. (Syn: Pectoral, Expectorant)

Anti-zymotic: An herb or substance that prevents or arrests the process of fermentation.

Aperient: An herb or substance that is a mild stimulant for the bowels causing little increase in per- istalsis and producing soft feces. A gentle and non-irritating laxative which does not cause purging. (Syn: Purgative, Laxative, Cathartic, Purge, Drastic, Evacuant, etc)

Aperitive: An herb or substance that increases sexual desire or potency. (Syn: Aphrodisiac)

Aphrodisiac: An herb or substance that increases or arouses sexual desire, power, or potency. (Syn: Aperitive)

Appetizer: An herb or substance that excites or increases the appetite. (Syn: Digestive)

Aromatic: An herb or substance that has a mildly stimula- ting fragrant or pleasing smell.

Ascaricide: An herb or substance that kills nematode or un- segmented worms such as roundworms and thread- worms.

Astringent: An herb or substance that acts upon the albumen of organic tissues to cause condensation and contraction, and restrains secretions and discharges. (Syn: Styptic)

Attenuant: An herb or substance that thins the blood.

Balm: An herb or substance that is soothing, calming, and healing. (Syn: Balsamic)

Balsam: Same as Balsamic

Balsamic: A resinous substance that is obtained from the secretions of various trees and plants, com- posed of aromatic oils and acids, which tend to be mildly stimulating, expectorant, sooth- ing, calming, and healing. (e.g. Pine Pitch, Balsam of Peru, Yerba Santa) (Syn: Balm, Bal- sam, Calmative)

Bechic: An herb or substance that is a tonic or remedy for coughs and coughing.

Bitter: An herb or substance with a characteristic bit- ter taste that acts on the gastric mucous mem- branes of the mouth and stomach increasing their tone and activity and thereby improving the appetite and promoting digestion. (Syn: Bitter Tonic)

Bitter Tonic: An herb or substance, or combined formula, that acts on the gastric mucous membranes of the mouth and stomach increasing their tone and activity and thereby improving the appetite and promoting digestion. (Syn: Bitter)

Blood Purifier: An herb or substance which speeds up the pro- cess of detoxification and excretion of waste products in the blood by stimulating intestin- al, liver, or bile functions, or creating lax- ative effects. (Syn: Depurative, Depurant, Detergent)

Bronchial: An herb or substance which relaxes constricting spasms and opens the bronchi or upper part of the lungs, thus improving respiration.

Calefacient: An herb or substance that is heating.

Calmative: An herb or substance that produces a calming, mildly sedative, or tranquilizing effect. (Syn: Sedative, Tranquilizer, Nervine)

Carcinostatic: An herb or substance that arrests or inhibits the development or continued growth of cancer, carcinomas, or malignant tumors.

Cardiac: An herb or substance that stimulates, tones, or restores the heart. (Syn: Cardiac Tonic, Cardiant, Cordial)

Cardiac Tonic: An herb, substance, or combined formula that strengthens and stimulates the heart metabol- ism. (Syn: Cardiac, Cardiant, Cardiotonic, Cordial)

Cardialgic: An herb or substance that causes heartburn.

Cardiant: An herb or substance that acts on the heart either as a stimulant or depressant. (Syn: Cardiac Tonic, Cardiant, Cordial)

Cardiotonic: An herb, substance, or combined formula that strengthens and stimulates the heart metabol- ism. (Syn: Cardiac, Cardiac Tonic, Cardiant, Cordial)

Carminative: An herb or substance that aids, prevents, or relieves the expelling of gas and flatulence from the stomach, intestines, and/or bowels, and thus reduces pain and discomfort. (Syn: Digestive)

Carrier: An herb or substance which is added to a form- ula or mixture of other herbs to aid in the distribution of the medicine to the proper location in the body or to enhance the effect of the other principle ingredients. (Syn: Adjuvant)

Cataplasm: A medicated poultice or soft external applica- tion. (Syn: Fomentation, Poultice)

Cathartic: An herb or substance that has a strong laxative effect that causes or hastens an evacuation of the bowels. (Syn: Aperient, Evacuant, Laxa- tive, Purgative, Purge)

Caustic: An herb or substance that contains acidic ma- terial that has an escharotic or corrosive action capable of burning or eating away living tissues. (Syn: Acrid, Corrosive, Cauterant, Escharotic)

Cauterant: An herb or substance that has corrosive de- structive action on living tissue. (Syn: Acrid, Corrosive, Caustic, Escharotic?)

Cephalic: An herb or substance that is used to treat diseases of the head. (See: Cephalgic)

Cephalgic: An herb or substance that is used to treat headaches. (See: Cephalic)

Cholagogic: Same as Cholagogue

Cholagogue: An herb or substance that stimulates and in- creases the flow of bile into the intestines. (Cholagogic, Ant: Anti-bilious)

Choleretic: An herb or substance that prevents or decreases the flow of bile into the intestines.

Cholinergic: An herb or substance that... ? Michael Moore

Cicatrizant: An herb or substance that is used to help form a cicatrix or new scar tissue over a burn or an open wound.

Coagulant: An herb or substance that induces clotting in a liquid, especially the blood. (Syn: Hemo- static, Styptic)

Condiment: An herb or substance that seasons or improves the flavor of food.

Conserve: A medication consisting of a powdered herb or other drug substance made into a paste with syrup or honey. (Syn: Electuary)

Contraceptive: An herb or substance that inhibits the forma- tion of ova or sperm, or interfers with the process of fertilization. Syn: Anti-fertilitic

Coolant: An herb or substance that reduces body tempera- ture.

Cordial: An herb or substance that stimulates or invig- orates the heart. (Syn: Cardiac, Cardiac Tonic Cardiant)

Correctant: Same as Corrective

Corrective: An herb or substance that favorably modifies the action of powerful or harsh drugs. (Syn: Correctant, Corrigent)

Corrigent: Same as Corrective

Corroborant: An herb or substance that is tonic or invigor- ating.

Corrosive: An herb or substance that has a corrosive or acidic substance capable of harming, burning, or eating away tissues. (Syn: Acrid, Caustic, Cauterant, Escharotic)

Counter-Irritant: An herb or substance that: [a] produces irri- tation or hyperaemia (redness) in one part of the body in order to relieve or counteract an irritation or inflammation in another part of the body, or [b] is directly soothing to an irritation or inflammation. (Syn: Acrid, Caustic, Corrosive, Demulcent, Emollient, Hyperaemic, Irritant, Revulsive, Rubefacient)

Cycloplegic: An herb or substance that paralyses the ciliary muscle of the eye resulting in the relaxation of ocular accommodation which is the ability to focus on objects at different distances.

Dacryagogue: An herb or substance that causes crying or a flow of tears.

Decoction: A liquid preparation obtained by boiling medi- cinal plant parts in water and then extracting the solid parts by straining the preparation. (See also: Infusion)

Decongestive: An herb or substance that reduces congestion.

Deliriant: Same as Delirifacient

Delirifacient: An herb or substance that produces disturbances of consciousness, violent emotion or mental excitement, delirium, fevers, or hallucina- tions. (Syn: Hallucinogen, Hallucinogenic)

Demulcent: An herb or substance that is bland, oily and/or mucilaginous, which is soothing when applied to irritated, inflamed, or abraded tissue, especially the mucous membranes or skin sur- faces. (Syn: Counter-irritant, Emollient, Lenitive)

Dentifrice: An herb or substance or preparation used for cleaning and polishing the teeth.

Deobstruent: An herb or substance that aids in the removal of obstructions, especially those lodged in organs such as stones. (Syn: Anthilitic, Antilithic, Lithontriptic)

Deodorant: An herb or substance that either removes, des- troys, masks, or suppresses odors

Depilatory: An herb or substance that removes or destroys hair and causes baldness. (Ant: Anti-alopecic)

Depressant: An herb or substance that lessens or depresses nervous sensation, lowers a functional activ- ity or reduces vital energy by causing the relaxation of muscles, nerves, or tissues. (Ant: Stimulant, Syn: Depresso-motor, Motor- depressant)

Depresso-motor: An herb or substance that depresses or dimin- ishes motor activity. (Ant: Stimulant, Syn: Depressant)

Depurant: Same as Depurative

Depurative: An herb or substance that acts to cleanse or purify the body, especially the blood, by helping to remove wastes and expel impurities. (Syn: Blood Purifier, Depurant, Detergent)

Dermatic: An herb or substance that affects or helps to cleanse and purify the skin.

Detergent: An herb or substance that helps cleanse and purify boils, ulcers, wounds, and sores by removing the dead or diseased matter. (Syn: AntiSeptic, Blood Purifier, Depurant, Depur- ative, Detersive, Disinfectant, Saponaceous)

Detersive: A cleaning agent. (Syn: Detergent)

Diaphoretic: An herb or substance that produces, promotes, or increases sweat and perspiration. (A seda- tive diaphoretic acts by dilation of the skin vessels.) (Syn: Sudorific, Hydragogue)

Digestant: Same as Digestive

Digestive: An herb or substance that directly digests food or aides in the digestion of food. (Syn: Digestant, Eupeptic, Peptic)

Diluent: An herb or substance that dilutes the fluids of the body and renders the excretions less irritant. (Syn: Dilutant)

Dilutant: Same as Diluent

Discutient: An herb or substance that helps disolve or re- move local tumefaction (tumors) or inflamma- tion. (Syn: Maturating, Resolvent)

Disinfectant: An herb or substance that cleanses or prevents infection by destroying or inhibiting the activity of pathogenic disease producing bac- teria, germs, and other micro-organisms, or by rendering organic fermentation inactive. (Syn: Anti-septic, Anti-biotic, Detergent)

Diuretic: An herb or substance that increases the secre- tion, flow, and expulsion of urine. (Syn: Renal, Renic)

Drastic: An herb or substance that is a harsh purgative that usually causes pain, tormina (griping cramps), tenesmus (urgent feeling of the need to defecate without the ability to do so), diarrhea, and/or repeated evacuations of the bowels. (Syn: Purge, Purgative, Laxative, Eliminant)

Ecbolic: An herb or substance that excites and acceler- ates uterine contractions and thus facilitates parturition or child birth. (Syn: Oxytocic, Parturient, Parturifacient)

Electuary: A medication consisting of a powdered herb or other drug substance made into a paste with syrup or honey. (Syn: Conserve)

Eliminant: An herb or substance that causes evacuations, especially when soluble compounds are formed of insoluble substances thus facili their removal by eretion. (Eliminator, Syn: Laxative, Drastic, Purgative, Cathartic)

Eliminator: Same as Eliminant

Embrocation: An application of liquid medication to the surface of the body; any liquid medication for external use.

Emetic: An herb or substance that causes vomiting or emesis. (Syn: Nauseant, Vomitive)

Emmenagogic: Same as Emmenagogue

Emmenagogue: An herb or substance that promotes and regu- lates menstrual flow. (Emmenagogic)

Emollient: An herb or substance that is used externally to soften and soothe irritated skin, inflamed tissue, or mucous membranes. (Syn: Demulcent, Counter-irritant)

Endocrinic: An herb or substance that strengthens the endo- crine glands and immune system. (e.g. Echin- acea)

Epispastic: An herb or substance that causes blistering. (Syn: Vesicant)

Errhine: An herb or substance that excites, produces or promotes sneezing, or nasal discharge and secretion. (Syn: Sternutatory)

Escharotic: An herb or substance that is caustic or corro- sive and capable of producing an eschar or slough. (Syn: Caustic, Cauterant, Corrosive)

Esculent: An herb or substance that is suitable to be eaten as food. (Ant: Poison)

Eupeptic: An herb or substance that promotes or aides the digestion of food. (Syn: Peptic, Digestive)

Euphoriant: An herb or substance that produces an abnormal sense of euphoria, vigor, and buoyancy. (Syn: Hallucinogen, Hallucinogenic, Delirifacient, Euphorigen)

Euphorigen: Same as Euphoriant

Evacuant: An herb or substance that has a laxative effect that causes or hastens an evacuation of the bowels. (Syn: Aperient, Cathartic, Laxative, Purgative, Purge, etc.)

Exanthematous: An herb or substance that affects or acts as a remedy for skin diseases and eruptions. (Syn: Herpetic)

Excitant: An herb or substance that excites or stimulates the vital functions of a particular body sys- tem, especially the nervous, muscular, and circulatory systems. (Syn: Stimulant, Excito- motor, Ant: Depressant)

Excito-motor: An herb or substance that excites, stimulates, & increases muscular activity. (Syn: Excitant)

Exhilarant: An herb or substance that excites or elevates the psychic function, or produces an abnormal sense of euphoria, vigor, and buoyancy. (Syn: Euphoriant, Hallucinogen, Hallucinogenic, Delirifacient, Euphorigen)

Expectorant: An herb or substance that promotes the dis charge of mucus and phlegm from the lungs and throat by means of spitting and expectoration. (Stimulant expectorants excite during muscu lar weakness, sedative expectorants reduce irritation. Either can facilitate expulsion of sputum from mucus membranes and air pass ages.) (Syn: Anti-tussive, Pectoral)

Extract: A preparation obtained from soaking an herb, plant part, or substance in an appropriate solvent, usually alcohol, water, or glycerine, then removing the solid parts by straining, evaporating some or all of the solvent, and adjusting the result to prescribed standards of concentration.

Febrifuge: An herb or substance that reduces or eliminates the high temperatures of fevers. (Syn: Anti- pyretic, Refrigerant)

Filaricide: An herb or substance that kills a class of em- bryo worms known as filaria. (e.g. guinea worms)

Fomentation: An herb or substance administered by warm moist applications. (Syn: Poultice, Cataplasm)

Fumigatoric: An herb or substance that is burned so that the smoke can be used to kill or inhibit insects or vermin. (Syn: Insecticide, Larvicide)

Fungicide: An herb or substance that kills or inhibits fungus infections. (Syn: Anti-bacterial, Germicide)

Galactafuge: An herb or substance that diminishes or arrests the secretion and flow of milk. (Syn: Galacta- phyge, Lactafuge, Lactaphyge, Ant: Galactagogue Galactagenic, Lactagogue, Lactagenic)

Galactagenic: Same as Galactagogue

Galactagogue: An herb or substance that stimulates, promotes, or increases the secretion and flow of milk. (Syn: Galactagenic, Lactagenic, Lactagogue, Ant: Galactafuge, Galactaphyge, Lactafuge, Lactaphyge)

Galactaphyge: Same as Galactofuge

Gastro-Intestinal: An herb or substance that affects the stomach and intestines.

Genito-Urinary: An herb or substance that affects the genitals and urinary organs or their functions. (Syn: Urogenital, Urinogenital)

Germicide: An herb or substance that destroys germs, bac- teria, or other micro-organisms. (Syn: Anti- bacterial, Disinfectant, Fungicide)

Haematic: A blood purifier. (Syn: Hematic)

Haematinic: A blood purifier. (Syn: Hematic)

Haemostatic: An herb or substance that regulates, slows, or stops the flow of blood. (Syn: Coagulant, Hemostatic, Styptic)

Hallucinogenic: An herb or substance that produces disturbances of consciousness, violent emotion or mental excitement, euphoria, delusions, delirium, fevers, or hallucinations. (Syn: Hallucinogen Delirifacient)

Hallucinogen: Same as Hallucinogenic

Hematic: An herb or substance that cleanses or improves the quality of the blood. (Syn: Blood Puri- fier, Haematic, Haematinic, Hematinic)

Hematinic: Same as Hematic

Hemostatic: An herb or substance that regulates, slows, or stops the flow of blood. (Syn: Coagulant, Haemostatic, Styptic)

Hepatic: An herb or substance that stimulates the vari- ous functions of the liver, or acts as a cure for diseases of the liver.

Herpetic: An herb or substance that affects or acts as a remedy for skin diseases, acne, eruptions, or ringworm. (Syn: Exanthematous)

Hydragogue: An herb or substance that causes abundant and cathartic watery discharges, especially urina- tion, perspiration, and diarrhea. A water purgative. (Syn: Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Sudorific, Purgative)

Hygroscopic: An herb or substance that induces the body to attract and retain moisture.

Hyperaemic: An herb or substance that draws an excessive amount of blood to on part of the body causing redness and swelling (hyperaemia). (Syn: Counter-irritant, Revulsive, Rubefacient)

Hyperglycemic: An herb or substance that helps to stabilize high blood sugar levels. (Ant: Hypoglycemic)

Hypertensive: An herb or substance that raises blood pressure (Ant: Hypotensive)

Hypnotic: An herb or substance that promotes or produces sleep. (Some pain relievers are also hypnotic but true hypnotics only cause sleep.) (Syn: Somnifacient, Nervine)

Hypodermic: An herb, substance, or preparation that affects the tissue beneath the surface of the skin. (Syn: Subculoydic)

Hypoglycemic: An herb or substance that helps to stabilize low blood sugar levels. (Ant: Hyperglycemic)

Hypotensive: An herb or substance that lowers blood pressure (Ant: Hypertensive)

Immuno-stimulant: An herb or substance that contains constituents which stimulate the inate immune system, activating the first line of defense by the human body, increased "scouring" by white blood cells, called "macrophages". Stimulating this first line of defense subsequently stimulates the second line of defense, the aquired immune system. This part of the immune response initiates the formation of antibodies, which are created by the T-helper cells. These antibodies and are designed to lyse or pierce the membranes of the invading pathogen.

Infusion: A liquid preparation obtained by steeping medicinal plant parts in water and then extracting the solid parts by straining the preparation. (See also: Decoction)

Insecticidal: Same as Insecticide

Insecticide: An herb or substance that kills insects. (Syn: Fumigatoric, Insecticidal, Larvicide)

Irritant: An herb or substance that when applied locally causes inflammation, hyperaemia or excess blood, and rashes or abnormal sensitivity in living tissue. (Syn: Rubefacient, Counter- irritant)

Isotonic (solution) A type of solution used in herbal medicine, which consists of a mixture of pure or distilled water and pure salt (sea salt without any anti-caking agents is best). The ratio to create the solution is 1 cup of purified water combined with 1/4 th teaspoon salt. This solution is used to create herbal teas which become soothing washes for mucous membranes such as eyes, mouth or sinus. Lactafuge: An herb or substance that diminishes or arrests the secretion and flow of milk. (Syn: Lacta- phyge, Galactafuge, Galactaphyge, Ant: Galac- tagogue, Galactagenic, Lactifuge, Lactagenic, Lactagogue)

Lactagenic: Same as Lactagogue

Lactagogue: An herb or substance that stimulates, promotes, or increases the secretion and flow of milk. (Syn: Galactagenic, Galactagogue, Lactagenic, Ant: Galactaphyge, Galactafuge, Lactafuge, Lactaphyge)

Lactaphyge: Same as Lactafuge

Lactifuge: Same as Lactafuge

Lactigenic: Same as Lactagogue

Lactigogue: Same as Lactagogue

Lactiphyge: Same as Lactafuge

Larvicide: An herb or substance that kills the larvae of insects. (Syn: Fumigatoric, Insecticidal, Insecticide)

Laxative: An herb or substance that promotes or induces a mild and painless evacuation of the bowels. It is stronger than an aperient, but not pur- gative, cathartic, or drastic. (Syn: Aperient Cathartic, Purgative, Purge, Drastic)

Lenitive: An herb or substance that has a soothing demul- cent action on the internal membranes. (Syn: Demulcent)

Liniment: An herb or a substance applied to the skin by gentle friction or by brisk rubbing which is used to relieve superficial pain.

Lithontriptic: An herb or substance that dissolves calculi or kidney stones in the urinary organs. (Syn: Antilithic, Anthilitic, Deobstruent, Litho- triptic)

Lithotriptic: Same as Lithontriptic

Lymphatic: An herb or substance that cleanses, strength- ens, or heals the lymph system.

Maggoticide: An herb or substance that destroys maggots.

Masticatory: An herb or substance that is chewed to increase salivation. (Syn: Salivator, Sialagogue)

Maturating: An herb or substance that acts to ripen or bring boils, tumors, or ulcers to a head. (Syn: Discutient, Resolvent, Tumefacient)

Miotic: An herb or substance that causes the pupil of the eye to contract (miosis). (Myotic, Ant: Mydriatic)

Motor-depressant: An herb or substance that depresses, curbs, or restrains motor or muscular activity. (Syn: Depressant)

Motor-excitant: An herb or substance that incites or increases motor or muscular activity. (Syn: Stimulant)

Mucilaginous: An herb or substance that is characterized by a gummy or gelatinous consistency which is soothing and healing to inflamed surfaces and mucous membranes.

Mydriatic: An herb or substance that causes the pupil of the eye to expand or dilate (mydriasis). (Ant: Miotic, Myotic)

Myotic: An herb or substance that causes the pupil of the eye to contract or constrict (miosis). (Syn: Miotic, Ant: Mydriatic)

Narco-hypnotic: An herb or substance that not only causes sleep, but if given in larger does induces narcosis. (See: Narcotic)

Narcotic: An herb or substance that will relieve pain and induce sleep when used in medicinal doses, but which can produce stupor, convulsions, uncon- sciousness, coma, or death if the dosage is too large, and addiction if the dosage is re- peated too often. (Syn: Analgesic, Anesthetic, Anodyne, Sedative, Soporific)

Nauseant: An herb or substance that produces vomiting and nausea. (Syn: Emetic)

Nephritic: An herb or substance that cleanses or strength- ens the kidneys, or is used to treat diseases of the kidneys. (Syn: Renal)

Nervine: An herb or substance that relaxes, soothes, calms, and quiets the nerves, or which acts on the entire nervous system in a beneficial manner to allay nervous excitement. (Syn: Relaxant, Tranquilizer, Sedative, Narcotic)

Nutriant: Same as Nutrient

Nutrient: An herb or substance that affects the nutritive processes and metabolic changes in the body, supplies material for tissue building, con- tains necessary food values such as vitamins and minerals, or which acts to release these elements from other food which has already been eaten but not assimilated. (= Nutriant, Nutritive)

Nutritive: Same as Nutrient

Opthalmic: An herb or substance that acts to heal, soothe, or strengthen the eyes, or which acts as a remedy for diseases of the eyes.

Orexigenic: An herb or substance that excites or stimulates the appetite.

Oxytocic: An herb or substance that excites and acceler- ates parturition (child birth) by stimulating the contraction of the uterine muscles. (Syn: Ecbolic, Parturient, Parturifacient)

Palliative: An herb or substance that relieves symptoms without affecting or changing the underlying causes. (Syn: Placebo)

Paralyzant: An herb or substance that causes temporary functional paralysis of some part of the body.

Parasiticide: An herb or substance that kills parasites. (Syn: Vermicide, Taeniacide)

Para-sympathetic: An herb or substance that affects the para- sympathetic nervous system. (Syn: Sympathetic)

Parturient: An herb or substance that acts to induce labor at child birth by stimulating the contraction of the uterine muscles. (Syn: Parturifacient, Oxytocic, Ecbolic, Uterine)

Parturifacient: Same as Parturient

Partus Praeparator: An herb or substance that strengthens prior to but in preparation for labor and child birth.

Pectoral: An herb or substance that acts as a remedy for the diseases and afflictions of the chest and lungs, which promotes expectoration, or which relieves coughing. (Syn: Anti-tussive, Ex- pectorant)

Peptic: An herb or substance that aides in the diges- tion of food. (Syn: Digestive, Eupeptic )

Peristaltic: An herb or substance that induces or increases peristalsis or the rhythmic wavelike contrac- tions of the smooth muscles surrounding the intestines.

Pertussic: An herb or substance that soothes, relieves or heals coughing.

Physic: An herb or substance that has general medicinal or healing properties.

Placebo: An herb or substance which has no known effect or beneficial properties in regard to a speci- fic condition but which may nevertheless help a person if they believe that it will work. (Syn: Palliative)

Poison: An herb or substance that has harmful or fatal effects if it ingested by an organism, or if it comes in contact with living tissue. Some- thing not suitable to be eaten as food. (Ant: Esculent, Syn: Toxin, Toxic)

Polypharmic: An herb or substance which when combined with other herbs in a formula or mixture tends to increase the synergistic interaction of the other ingredients. (Ant: Simple)

Poultice: A paste made of an herb or drug applied to sore or inflamed body parts to supply moisture, to soothe, or to act as a local stimulant; medi- cated external application. (Syn: Cataplasm, Fomentation)

Protective: An herb or substance that protects a wound or lesion by mechanically covering or coating the surface of the skin.

Protozoicidal: An herb or substance that kills protozoa or amoeba.

Pruritic: An herb or substance that soothes or is effec- tive against itching.

Pulmonary: An herb or substance that strengthens, heals, cleanses, or affects the lungs. (Syn: Expec- torant, Pectoral)

Purgative: An herb or substance that produces a vigorous and rapid evacuation of the bowels. (Syn: Aperient, Laxative, Drastic, Cathartic, Purge) May also refer to discharges other than from the bowels. (See: Hydragogue)

Purge: Same as Purgative

Pustulant: An herb or substance that attacks or irritates isolated areas of the skin, for example the sweat glands, causing pustules, pimples, or blisters.

Reconstructive: An herb or substance that furnishes needed medicinal and nutritive substances, and also restores the strength and integrity of the body. (Syn: Alterative, Nutrient, Restorative)

Refrigerant: An herb or substance that imparts a cooling sensation to the mucous membranes, allays thirst, and reduces abnormal body heat and fever. Externally it cools by evaporation. (Syn: Febrifuge, Anti-Pyretic)

Relaxant: An herb or substance that relaxes, eases, and relieves tension and strain. (Syn: Calmative, Nervine, Sedative, Tranquilizer)

Renal: An herb or substance that strengthens, heals, cleanses, or otherwise affects the kidneys, or is used to treat diseases of the kidneys. (Syn: Diuretic, Nephritic)

Resinoid: A preparation that is a mixture of a resin and another substance or substances, especially alcoholic preparations precipitated with water

Resolvent: An herb or substance that reduces, dissolves, removes, dissipates, or promotes the resolu- tion of swellings, tumors, or other pathologic growths. (Syn: Discutient, Maturating, Tume- facient)

Resorbent: An herb or substance that promotes the removal of waste matter, especially by perspiration.

Restorative: An herb or substance that helps to restore con- sciousness, tone, vigor, function, or health, or which returns the body to normal physiolog- ical activity after it has experienced a shock or trauma. (Syn: Reconstructive)

Revulsive: An herb or substance that produces a localized excess of blood which then reduces other blood engorged areas. (Syn: Counter-Irritant, Rube- facient, Hyperaemic)

Roborant: An herb or substance that supplies needed food or material to tissues, and imparts increased strength. (Syn: Nutritive, Restorative,)

Rubefacient: An herb or substance that reddens the skin when applied locally by increasing the circulation, but which may also cause irritation. (Syn: Counter-Irritant, Hyperaemic, Irritant, Revul- sive)

Salivant: Same as Salivator

Salivator: An herb or substance that increase the secret- ion or causes an excessive flow of saliva. (Syn: Masticatory, Sialagogue)

Saponaceous: An herb or substance that is soapy, and thus helps cleanse and purify external wounds or sores (Syn: Depurant, Depurative, Detergent)

Sedative: An herb or substance that soothes and reduces nervousness, distress, excitement, or irrita tion. It can also relieve pain and induce sleep, and have a strengthening tonic effect. (Syn: Analgesic, Anesthetic, Anodyne, Calma- tive, Narcotic, Nervine, Relaxant, Soporific, Somnifacient)

Sialagogue: An herb or substance that promotes or increases the secretion of saliva, or causes an exces- sive flow of saliva. (Syn: Masticatory, Sali- vator)

Simple: An herb or substance which is used by itself as a complete form of treatment or prevention, as opposed to being used in a formula or in comb- ination with other herbs or substances. (Ant: Polypharmic)

Somnifacient: An herb or substance that induces sleep. (Syn: Calmative, Hypnotic, Anesthetic, Narcotic, Nervine, Relaxant, Soporific)

Soporific: An herb or substance that induces sleep. (Syn: Hypnotic, Narcotic, Nervine, Relaxant, Seda- tive, Anesthetic, Somnifacient)

Spasmolytic: An herb or substance that relieves, reduces, or prevents spasms, cramps, and contractions in either the voluntary or involuntary muscles, and which also alleviates the pain which can accompany them. (Syn: Anti-Spasmodic)

Specific: An herb or substance that has a selective cura- tive action in a specific organ, condition, or disease, or in a particular phase of the dis- ease. (Ant: Systemic)

Spermatogenic: An herb or substance that helps produce semen or spermatozoa.

Sternutatory: An herb or substance that excites or induces sneezing. (e.g. black pepper) (Syn: Errhine)

Stimulant: An herb or substance that excites, quickens, or increases the activity of the physiological processes and vital functions of a particular body system, especially the nervous, muscular, gastric, respiratory, cardiac/circulatory, hepatic, and urinary systems. (Ant: Depres- sant, Syn: Excitant, Tonic)

Stomachic: An herb or substance that acts on the stomach by toning and soothing, promoting digestion, correcting an acid-alkaline imbalance, or stimulating the appetite. (Syn: Digestive)

Styptic: An herb or substance that will locally stop bleeding and hemorrhages by contracting the blood vessels and tissue through strong as- tringent action. (Syn: Astringent, Coagulant, Hemostatic)

Subculoydic: An herb, substance, or preparation that affects the tissue beneath the surface of the skin. (Syn: Hypodermic)

Sudorific: An herb or substance that promotes or increases intense sweating, sometimes causing active droplet perspiration. (Syn: Diaphoretic, Hydragogue)

Suppository: A small solid medication that is inserted into a body orifice other than the mouth.

Suppurative: An herb or substance that helps to release pus from a wound or infected area.

Sympathetic: An herb or substance that affects the sympathe- tic nervous system. (Syn: Para-sympathetic)

Synergist: An herb or substance that has a similar effect upon tissue or function as some other agent, and usually acts harmoniously in conjunction with it.

Systemic: An herb or substance that effects the body as a whole rather working on particular organs or tissue. (Ant: Specific)

Taenicide: Same as Taeniacide.

Taeniacide: An herb or substance that kills and expels tapeworms. (Syn: Anthelmintic, Parasititic, Taeniafuge, Vermicide, Vermifuge)

Taenifuge: Same as Taeniafuge.

Taeniafuge: An herb or substance that expels tapeworms. (Syn: Anthelmintic, Parasititic, Taenia-cide, Vermicide, Vermifuge)

Thoratic: An herb or substance which is used to treat respiratory problems.

Thymoleptic: An herb or substance which raises the mood or counteracts depression.

Tonic: An herb or substance that restores normal func- tions by stimulating, invigorating, strength- ening, and toning either a particular organ or the entire body. (Syn: Bitter Tonic, Stimulant)

Toxic: An herb, substance, organism, or chemical that has harmful or fatal effects if it ingested by an organism usually due to the waste products that are manufactured or accumulated. Also the chemical additives and preservatives in food. (Ant: Esculent, Syn: Toxic, Poison)

Toxin Same as Toxic

Tranquilizer: An herb or substance that calms, soothes, and relaxes. (Syn: Nervine, Relaxant, Sedative)

Tumefacient: An herb or substance that, [a] reduces swell- ing and edema. [b] reduces the growth of tumors, boils, moles, etc. (Syn: Resolvent, Discutient, Maturating,)

Urino-Genital: Same as Urogenital

Urogenital: An herb or substance that affects the genitals and urinary organs or their functions. (Syn: Urino-genital, Genito-Urinary)

Uterine: An herb or substance that affects the uterus or womb, especially one that acts to induce labor at child birth by stimulating the contraction of the uterine muscles. (Syn: Parturifacient, Parturient, Oxytocic, Ecbolic)

Varicosic: An herb or substance that helps to reduce the swelling and pain of varicose veins.

Vaso-constrictor: An herb or substance that narrows or constricts the blood vessels, thus raising blood pressure (Ant: Vaso-dilator, Vaso-depressant, Syn: Vaso-stimulant)

Vaso-depressant: An herb or substance that relaxes the blood vessels by acting on the nervous and/or muscle systems, and thus decreases blood pressure. (Ant: Vaso-constrictor, Vaso-stimulant, Syn: Vaso-dilator)

Vaso-dilator: An herb or substance that widens or dilates the blood vessels, thus lowering blood pressure. (Ant: Vaso-constrictor, Vaso-stimulant, Syn: Vaso-depressant)

Vaso-stimulant: An herb or substance that increases tension in the blood vessels by acting on the nervous and/or muscle systems, and thus increases the blood pressure. (Ant: Vaso-dilator, Vaso- depressant, Syn: Vaso-constrictor)

Vermicide: An herb or substance that kills and expels in- testinal worms. (Syn: Anthelmintic, Parasiti- tic, Taeniacide, Taeniafuge, Vermifuge)

Vermifuge: An herb or substance that expels intestinal worms. (Syn: Anthelmintic, Parasititic, Taeniacide, Taeniafuge, Vermicide)

Vesicant: An herb or substance that causes blistering or vesication. (Syn: Epispastic)

Vomitive: An herb or substance that causes vomiting or emesis. (Syn: Nauseant, Emetic)

Vulnerary: An herb or substance that heals open wounds, and is used specifically in external applica- tions, packs, and compresses. It can also be taken internally to enhance the effect.

SOURCES

Felter, Harvey The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Wickes M.D. Therapeutics, Eclectic Medical Publications, Portland, Oregon, 1985

Hutchens, Alma R. Indian Herbalogy of North America, Merco Publishers, Windsor, Ontario, 1973

Jain, S. K. and Medicinal Plants of India, 2 volumes, DeFilipps, Robert A. Reference Publications, Inc., 218 St. Clair River Drive, Box 344, Algonac, Michigan 48001, 1991 p.622-639

Lust, John The Herb Book, Bantam Books, New York, 1974

Michael Moore, Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West, The Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1979

Potter's Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, C. W. Daniel Company Limited, Saffron Walden, Essex, England, (1907-1915- 1923-1932-1939-1950-1956) - 1988, Editors: Richard Cranfield Wren, R. W. Wren, Elizabeth M. Williamson, Fred J. Evans, Etc.

Reader's Digest Magic and Medicine of Plants, Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Pleasantville, New York, 1986

Kowalchic, Claire Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hylton, William H. Herbs, Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsyl- vania, 1987

Hoffman, David The Herbal HandBook - A User's Guide to Medical Herbalism, Healing Arts Press,

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